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RHINO – the family of mammals equids. In Africa, there are two types -.. White rhino (after the elephant is the largest mammal weighing 2300-3600 kg, and black rhino names of these conventions as well as the black rhinoceros is not as black as the white rhino – essentially no white color. both animals dependent on soil color on which they live, as they are willing to roll in the dust and dirt, and original slate-gray color of their skin takes on the whitish, then red, and in areas with solidified lava and black shade.
Raspostranen White Rhinoceros in South Africa, as well as in Kenya, Tanzania. He lives with savanna, bushes. Travoyaden. Black Rhino – a large and powerful animal, reaching the mass 2 m, length up to 3.15 m at a height of 150-160 cm muzzle him decorate usually two horns, but in some areas (for example, in Zambia.) – Three or even five. At the base of the horn section round (the white rhino – trapezoid). Anterior horn of the largest, most often the length of 40-60 cm.
External differences from the white black rhino is a unit of the upper lip: the black rhino, it is sharpened and the proboscis droops over the bottom. With this lip animal grabs leaves from a bush branches.
At the beginning of the last century, black rhinos lived in the vast territory of Central, Eastern and Southern Africa. Unfortunately, they have not escaped the common fate of all large African animals, and now preserved almost exclusively in the national parks, although the overall configuration of the area remained almost unchanged (they are completely destroyed only in South Africa). In 1967, the entire African continent lived between 11 000 and 13 500 of these animals, but only in Tanzania, there were up to 4,000.
Black Rhino – a resident of the dry landscapes, whether sparse forests, shrubs and acacia savannah or open steppe. Occasionally found even in the semi-desert. However, in the tropical rainforests of the Congo Basin and West Africa does not penetrate. In the mountains of East Africa it is found at an altitude of 2700 m above sea level. This rhino is almost does not know how to swim, and even small water obstacles are insurmountable for him. Well known rhino attachment to a particular section of the territory, which it does not leave lifelong. Even severe droughts are not forced to migrate this giant.
It feeds mainly black rhino young shoots of shrubs, which, like a finger, grabs his upper lip. At the same time the animals do not pay any attention to spikes or the acrid juice. Even on the open plains, they prefer to find smaller shrubs that are pulled up by the roots. It feeds the black rhino in the morning and evening, and the hottest hours usually spends in a dream, standing in the shade of a tree. Sleeping rhinoceros at night for 8-9 hours, she tucked her legs under her and her head resting on the ground; rarer the animal lying on its side, stretched limbs. Every day, they go to drink, sometimes for 8 to 10 km, and for a long time lying in the coastal mud. There are cases where the rhinos are so fond of mud baths that could not get out of the viscous sludge and became a victim of hyenas. The drought rhinos often used for watering holes that are dug by elephants.
Black rhinos are solitary. Frequently couples usually consist of a mother and baby. However, unlike the Asian rhinos, African are not strictly individual site and protect its borders against their own kind. Large heaps of manure, which was previously attributed to “boundary markers”, apparently, can be considered as a kind of “help desk” where passing rhino receives information about their predecessors. The vision of the black rhino is very weak. Even at a distance of 40-50 meters, he can not distinguish a person from a tree trunk. Hearing developed much better, but the main role in the recognition of the external world plays smell. Even in the open looking for the lost baby’s mother in his footsteps. If there is no wind, the rhinoceros of curiosity can get closer to the man literally back to back, but sufficiently weak blow that he recognized the danger and fled and went on the attack.
Running around the rhinos fast trot heavy or awkward gallop, developing speed over short distances up to 48 km / h. Black rhinos are almost never aggressive toward their brethren. Sometimes it comes even to the mutual: in 1958. Huntsman Nairobi National Park (Kenya) African Ellis saw two females who were maintaining their bodies, a third, apparently pregnant. Noticing the observer, the trio has added step. If rhinos still instigate a fight, the serious injury does not happen, the men get off with light stripes on the shoulders. Attacks are not usually the male on male, like a deer, and other cloven-hoofed animals, and the female on the male. In another battle develops, if Rhino does not give way or watering the elephant: these matches often ended in the death of a rhinoceros. Cubs rhinos often fall prey to lions and even hyenas.
With its neighbors – buffaloes, zebras, wildebeest – rhinos live in the world, and among the birds they have even friends. Small olive-brown bird with a red beak voloklyui or buffalo bird starling in the family, constantly accompany rhinos, climb on the back and sides, there vyklevyvaya sucking ticks. According to the habits and way of movement, they are very similar to our nuthatches. Assist rhinos rid of ticks and cattle egret. Very interesting relationships among rhino with water turtles: a rhino is to lie down in the mud for making a mud bath, both with all parties rush to the spot turtles. Approaching, they carefully examine and begin to pull the giant sucking ticks. Apparently, this operation is very painful, because sometimes with a loud snort Rhino jumps to his feet, but then again falls in the dirt. Buff birds also often peck rhinoceros skin to blood. Usually black rhino sniffs loudly, but when frightened, he may issue a piercing whistle.
There is no definite black rhino breeding season. Mating occurs in different seasons. After 15-16 months pregnant female bears one calf. The newborn has a weight of 20-35 kg, a tiny (1 cm) bright horn and within ten minutes after birth can walk, and after 4 hours starts to suck his mother. Within two years the cub eats milk of mother. By the time he reaches quite impressive size, and to get to the nipples, he has to kneel. Do not part with his mother he is 3.5 years.
Living black rhinos more than 35 years.