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Orangutan – one of the three best-known species of great apes. Together with the gorilla and the chimpanzee, he is among the closest to the human animal. You can often find the erroneous spelling of the name of this animal – orangutan. But the word “orangutan” in the language of the locals means “the debtor” and the word “orangutan” means “forest man”. Total known species of orangutans 2 – borneysky and Sumatran.
The appearance of these monkeys is very original and not similar to any other animal. In the vertical position of the entire height of the orangutans 120-140 cm, but can weigh 80 – 140 kg! The reason is that orangutans have relatively short legs and fat belly, so the small size of these animals have a lot of weight. Torso in orangutans rather square shape, the limbs strong and muscular. His hands orangutans are so long that in the vertical position hanging below the knees, but his legs, on the contrary, short and crooked. Feet and hands are large, and on the hands and feet thumb opposed to the others. This facilitates the capturing of branches when climbing trees. At the ends of the fingers as the nails in humans. The skull is convex with orangutans in the highly developed part of the front. Eyes close-set nostrils relatively small. These animals are well developed muscles of facial expression, and they often grimace. Do orangutans well marked sexual dimorphism (difference in the male and female body structure): females are smaller and thinner (up to 50 kg), males are not only difficult, but also have a special cushion the skin around the face. This forms the front drive roller, particularly pronounced in older males, in addition to the male face has a mustache and beard. Coat color in young fiery redhead in old animals darker – brown.
Orangutans live only on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, the Malay Archipelago, that is their natural habitat is relatively small. In the wild, these animals inhabit only the rainforests, and spend most of the trees of life, rarely descending to the ground. By turning the trees they move from branch to branch, and where the distance between adjacent large trees, orangutans use flexible thin trunks or lianas. When moving orangutans often hang on the arms and front legs generally use active backplane. Unlike other apes, orangutans are not heavy jump from branch to branch. Despite this, in old animals sometimes show signs of fractures of the arms and legs.
As an overnight orangutans using branches of trees: they often sleep on the branches, sometimes erect in the crowns of primitive nests.
A distinctive feature of these animals is a solitary lifestyle, which generally is not peculiar to primates. Orangutans are very different habits from other species of monkeys: they are extremely quiet and silent, their voices are rarely heard in the woods. The nature of their very calm and peaceful. Orangutans never put up a fight, behaved impressively, moving slowly. We can say that a certain inherent intelligence of orangutans. In the forest, each animal has its own site, but the protection of the territory does not involve aggression. Orangutans avoid proximity to humans and instead go and see the human settlement in search of food, seeking solitude in the depths of the forest. When catching they do not have a strong resistance.
Orangutans feed on plant foods – fruits and leaves of trees, sometimes they eat the eggs of birds and small animals. The food they collect in CZK, slowly tearing and chewing shoots. Like many monkeys orangutans do not like water, so avoid to cross the river, and in the rain covered my head ripped off leaves.
Multiply these animals all year round. The male to attract the female begins to roar loudly in the whole forest. If several opponents, they try to lure their songs every female on their side, but they rarely leave the boundaries of their own area. The female chooses the sound of the most powerful “macho” and visited its territory for mating. Gestation lasts 8.5 months. The female gives birth to one, rarely two calves weighing 1.5-2 kg. Newborn covered with rather long hair and clings to the mother’s skin.
First female holding a baby at the breast, then the grown up kid himself moved to the back of the mother. A mother feeds her baby with milk up to 2-3 years, and then he had a couple of years it accompanies. Only at the age of 5-6 years orangutans begin an independent life. They become sexually mature at the age of 10-15 years, and live an average of 45-50. Thus for his life female can raise no more than 5-6 cubs, that is extremely neplodovity orangutans.
In the natural environment, it does not matter, because the large orangutans living on the tops of trees, practically no enemies. Nevertheless, these animals are very rare. The number of orangutans is reduced due to the destruction of tropical forests. And without that small area of monkeys decreased dramatically over the past 40 years. In recent decades, the destruction of forests added another problem – poaching. As the orangutans are becoming more scarce, increasing their price on the black market and an increasing number of hunters is sent into the woods for prey. hunters often kill the mother to take the baby only.
Young orangutans resell to private zoos, but not for cultivation. Normal inheritance of such animals to be a toy for men. Using the fact that orangutans are highly intelligent, quickly trained and do not show aggression, even adults, they are trained to all sorts of tricks, grimaces, and even bad habits.