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Pandas are very old and rare animals. In the first of the giant panda was known 3000 years ago. They lived almost the entire territory of the southern and eastern China, northern Myanmar and North Vietnam.
Initially, people even choose the name of this animal could not. Pandu was called and the bear, tiger and even a fox. Giant Panda – the class of mammals, the detachment of prey, raccoon family, subfamily panda.
Giant Panda – Ailuropoda melanoleuca. It medvedeobraznoe animal has long been considered a “giant raccoon” because of the general anatomical features with a small panda (unconditionally regarded as a raccoon).
Australian paleontologist E. Tennius based on morphology analysis, biochemistry, cardiology and ethology of giant pandas has shown that features 16 it is close to the bears, and only five – to the small panda and the rest of raccoons, and 12 characteristics peculiar to her alone.
Tennius considered that Pandas deserve highlight in particular the family of ailuridae (Ailuropodidae), that proposed by R. Pokkok in 1921.
Molecular biological and cardiological study giant pandas, conducted by a team of American researchers have concluded that the evolution of a branch of the Big panda bears separated from the development of a line of about 25-18 million years ago -. In the first half of the Miocene.
Some peculiar common features in large and small pandas, apparently, is not explained by their common origin, and a parallel preservation of ancestral features in the same environmental conditions in Southeast Asia.
There is a hypothesis that the giant panda – is a living fossil, a relative of the extinct relatives of bears – agrioteriev.
Giant Panda looks like a bear. Not for nothing that her name was Bamboo bear, it is directly connected to the base of the diet of giant pandas. panda body length of up to 1.2- 1.8 m., weighing 17-160 kg. Covered with thick fur.
Short and thick legs with large paws, armed with strong claws. On the soles and at the base of each finger bare pads well developed to facilitate the smooth holding of bamboo stalks. His head giant panda massive tupomordaya with large erect ears.
“Prehensile” building clutches allows even an adult giant pandas climb high into trees. His ability steeplejack they use for a variety of purposes – orienteering, tasting of young shoots or for fun.
Pandas can even rest for a long time lying on the branches. Big Panda bears differ from the fairly long tail, which reaches 12 cm. In length.
Living Large panda in the dense thickets of bamboo at a height of 3 500 to 4 500 meters above sea level. Distributed Pandas in China (Sichuan, Shaanxi, Gansu), and in the eastern slopes of the Tibetan Plateau. Before people began to destroy giant pandas, these peaceful animals live as in Indochina and on the island of Borneo, in the mountainous bamboo forests.
Thick bamboo thickets, reaching a height of 3-4 meters, provides great panda shelters and food reserves. Giant Panda – a vegetarian and eats succulent young shoots and older stems that it frays jaws.
The esophagus and stomach is lined with layers of giant pandas elastic mucosal tissue for protection from bamboo splinters. Stems Giant Panda keeps in the paw with the “claw” – “sixth finger”, opposed to the others.
The famous “sixth finger” giant panda really was not a finger, and grow into one of the bones of the wrist. Thanks to him, the panda can “take in hand” bamboo stalks and other items, grab the branches while climbing and perform a series of actions that are not available to other bears.
Pandas were first mentioned in the “Description of mountains and rivers”, the oldest known Chinese texts on geography, written 2700 years ago. Panda is described as “like a bear in black and white animal that feeds on copper and iron and Janda country lives in the mountains.”
Love for copper and iron attributed panda because pandas sometimes came to the village and licked the dishes. During the wars of the iron made weapons, and of brass – a statue of the Buddha. Therefore, saying that during the war hungry pandas, as well only in peacetime.
Books written 1,700 years ago, called the panda symbol of peace, because she does not eat living beings. Since then, China’s panda is a symbol of peace and friendship. After the Second World War, these areas of habitat of rare animals have been declared natural reserves. Several research groups have started to scrutinize Bay-Zhung, to see if you can maintain and propagate bamboo bears in captivity.
99% of the diet of giant pandas is bamboo. Pandas love to feast on the leaves and young shoots of bamboo. The average adult panda eats 14 hours a day. The day panda can eat 10-20 kg of bamboo. Pandas eat and some other plants, flowers, bark, wood fungi and insects. There is evidence that sometimes they regale fish, small rodents and other animals, if they can catch them.
In China, there are about 300 species of bamboo. But panda agrees there are only 10 – 15, among suitable for human consumption following the panda bamboo: Fargesia robusta – the umbrella bamboo, Arundinaria spp. – Ringed bamboo, Gelidocalamus fangianus – arrow-shaped bamboo, Fargesia nitida – xiphoid bamboo.
All members of one species of bamboo flower and die at the same time as a plant. Thereafter, new edible plants of this kind appear not sooner than after 5-10 years. Therefore, giant pandas, so as not to starve to death requires at least two different species of bamboo growing nearby.
On the ground, there are several species of animals that are so strongly dependent on bamboo: Large and Small panda, some Lemurs view (Gold Lemoore, Bamboo Lemur) and bamboo rat, living in Madagascar.
A lot of bamboo forests destroys people. Man – this is the main cause of death and to reduce the population of giant pandas, and other endangered species. People are living one day and try to make the most of the environmental benefits.
Pandas Big peaceable animals that lived in the mountains and did not attack, and not ruined human dwellings. But man, as always, chased benefit and for the sake of profit, for the precious skins I cut off giant pandas.
Just because of the promotion and development of agriculture people do not hesitate to destroy the habitat of animals, cut down the bamboo forest, thereby depriving not only giant pandas, but also the future of other animals.
At present, China is seriously pondered the problem of extinction of giant pandas. In China, it introduced the death penalty for damage to giant panda and the destruction of these animals. All individuals pandas, as well as the offspring that they will in the future, belongs only to China.
To develop programs for the conservation of this rare species, China has leases zoos in other countries of giant pandas. The average rent for a year is 1 million. US dollars.
Only the question arises when a person begins to think before you destroy the animals, so you do not have to with so much difficulty and expense to restore the balance disturbed by it himself.