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Marten – a representative of a numerous family weasel. He is agile and brisk predator, capable of chasing the prey easily overcome various obstacles, climb on top of the forest canopy and climb tree trunks. Animal marten refers to valuable fur animals and has a beautiful noble fur from dark brown to brownish-yellow shades.
Animal marten: Description
Marten – the animal with a thick and soft fur, which can be painted in various shades of brown (dark brown, chestnut brown, brownish-yellow). On the neck of the marten it has a yellow throat spot colors, circular in shape. Paws – short, five-fingered. On the fingers are claws. Muzzle – acute. Ears – Short, triangular, with a yellow stripe on the edge. The body – slim, squat, slightly elongated (from 45 cm to 58 cm). Tail – bushy, long, reaches half marten body (from 16 cm to 28 cm in length). Body weight – from 800 g to 1.8 kg. Females are on average 30 percent lighter than males. Winter fur marten much silkier and longer summer, and the summer – is more rigid and shorter winter.
Types of martens
In nature, there are some species of martens that inhabit each in its own geographic and climatic zones, spreading strictly within their own areas.
Martes americana – American marten is classified as rare animals, resembles a marten, nocturnal beast of prey.
Martes pennanti – Ilka takes hollow trees, preferring to stick with coniferous forest plantations.
Martes foina – stone marten inhabits extremely large area, most other species is hunted for fur production.
Martes martes – marten is very common in Europe and Eurasia, is a source of obtaining quality fur.
Martes gwatkinsii – nilgiriyskaya marten is a unique animal that occupies the southern zone.
Martes zibellina – sable is a long-time object of hunting, sometimes it forms a kind of hybrid, called kidus (a cross between marten and sable).
Martes flavigula – marten is classified as Asian inhabitants, occupying large areas there.
Martes melampus – Japanese Marten is a source of fur in the territory of the main Japanese islands.
The American marten is found throughout the American continent. Ilka occupies a niche in the North American forests, meeting the Appalachians (Rec. Virginia) to Sierra Nevada (California). Stone marten inhabits an overwhelming part of the Eurasian continent – its habitat area extends from the Himalayas and Mongolia to the Iberian Peninsula. Specially imported in Wisconsin (USA). Marten covers almost all European countries: it can be found from West Siberia to the British Isles in the north and from the Elbrus and the Caucasus to the Mediterranean in the south. Nilgiriyskaya marten inhabit the southern part of India, living in the Western Ghats and the Nilgiri hills. Sable – Russian inhabitant of the taiga, which occupies the territory from the Pacific Ocean to the Urals.
Hartha is found on the Korean Peninsula, China, Turkey, Iran, in the Himalayan foothills, in Indochina, the Indian subcontinent, the Malay Peninsula and the Greater Sunda Islands. It is also well represented in Pakistan, Nepal, Georgia, Afghanistan. It is found on the territory of Russia, occupying the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krai, Sikhote-Alin, Ussuri basin and the Amur region. Japanese marten initially populate the 3 main islands of Japan – Kyushu, Shikoku, and Honshu. Lives and Tsushima, Korea, on the islands of Hokkaido and Sado. In Russia, it is found predominantly these types of martens as sable, marten, stone marten and marten.
Build martens directly affects its habits: the creature can only move stealthily or discontinuously (when running). Flexible marten body works like an elastic spring, causing runaway animal just for a moment flashed in the gaps paws conifers. Marten prefers to keep the middle and upper tiers of the forest. Deftly climbs trees, climbing even erect trunks that allow it to do very sharp claws.
Marten is predominantly diurnal, hunting on land and spending the bulk of their time in trees. Accommodation civet settles in the hollows of trees up to 16 meters high, or right in their crown. Man is not just marten avoids – and hidden from him. Conducts a sedentary life, without changing the habitat chosen by lots, even with a deficit of fodder. But rarely can roam for proteins that periodically undertake mass migration over long distances.
The forest area occupied by martens, allocated plots of two types: checkpoints, where they are from time to time, and subsistence hunting, which martens spend the most time. Summer and autumn sometimes marten learn only a small part of their land for hunting, long dwelling in areas of maximum accumulation of food. In winter, these boundaries are greatly expanded due to lack of food, and martens appear active zhirovochnye routes. Most often they go items such as shelter and feeding grounds, marking their urine.
Where does the marten
His whole way of life is associated with forest marten. It is found in many forest areas where trees grow different, but most prefer spruce, pine forest and close to them coniferous plantations. In the northern regions – a spruce-fir in the southern – spruce-deciduous, in the Caucasus region – fir and beech forests.
For permanent dwelling marten chooses cluttered areas of large forests with high trees, starolese, which is mixed with middle-sized portions of the young regrowth, from the edge of a large extent, and forest areas with underbrush and meadows. But it can settle on the plains and in the mountain forests, where it occurs in the valleys of large rivers and streams. Some species of marten not avoid and rocky areas placers. Places human habitation try to stay away, penetrating the settlements only for park zone. The only exception is a stone marten, the villagers often just in the cities and villages.
The civet eats
Martens – omnivores, but more often they eat medium-sized mammals (such as mice voles and squirrels), birds, and laying their eggs. They are distinguished by the fact that they are interested in a rat as the subject of hunting, which cats are trying to get round because of their large size. Do not disdain the marten and carrion, insects, snails, frogs, reptiles. Autumn willingly martens eat nuts, berries and fruits. At the end of the summer and all fall food marten lay in store, which will be useful to them in the cold season.
Marten, like all members of the weasel groups, which include marten, sable and some other species, at all times was an important commercial species. The reason – in a surprisingly noble fur, which is obtained after the processing of the carcasses. Cunha fur always been and are in great demand in the market, including international.