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Florence – a city in which the skills of the Italian school of architecture displayed with the greatest intensity and brilliance, is famous throughout the world for its cultural and artistic traditions.
Florence is located in the middle reaches of the Arno river in a valley, surrounded by rolling hills. It is the center of one of the regions of Italy – Tuscany. The natural beauty and splendor of its cities has a special appeal for travelers. Founded by the Romans in 59 BC on the right bank of the Arno River, the site of the modern Ponte Vekko, Florence turns pretty quickly in thriving market town.
After a period of decline under Byzantine rule and the Lombards, Florence regains its former glory during the reign of the Carolingian dynasty. In 1078, during the struggle for the right of investiture, Florence was on the side of the Countess Matilda of Canossa, and that has given the city’s independence, which meant the transformation of Florence in the city-state.
During the XII century the town flourished under the influence of the new merchant class. Craftsmen were united in powerful corporations of crafts and arts. In those years in the workshops of silk and wool-third of the population was engaged, and their products were exported to Europe with the economic support of the Florentine bankers.
Since 1215 the political life of Florence was determined struggle between two noble factions: the Guelphs who supported the Pope, and the Ghibellines, supporters of the emperor. Fighting continued with varying success for many years. Even the great Dante, who was standing on the side of Guelph, participated in the battle of Campaldino in 1289 that cost him his life of exile from Florence. Only the devastating plague of 1348, reduce by half the entire population of the city, it puts an end to this rivalry.
For over three centuries – from the XII to the XV century – Florence will become the cradle of spiritual and creative ideas of Dante, the great poet, as well as Cimabue, Giotto, Botticelli, Brunelleschi, Donatello, and finally – Michelangelo, the greatest artist and thinker of all time.
Since 1434, for 30 years, Florence alone the rules of Cosimo de ‘Medici. He tried to achieve a balance between the Italian states, and this policy was continued by his grandson Lorenzo the Magnificent, under whose reign, Florence flourished fine arts and literature. In this period of time we have developed the ideas of humanism, which determined the beginning of the great Renaissance. It was during this era of Florence takes its final shape, here there is the whole complex of Renaissance ideas and there is a galaxy of prominent people, embodied these ideas in his work. Revival becomes synonymous with humanistic arts, spiritual beauty, intellectual rise, on the other hand – the crisis of the city authorities, the wars between the city-states and the invasions of external enemies.
Changes in the field of music, literature and the arts, especially in painting, sculpture and architecture were truly revolutionary. In these times of world opened up by such famous personalities as Paolo Uccello, Beato Angelico, Sandro Botticelli, Benvenuto Cellini and Leon Battista Alberti.
In Florence, passed during the apprenticeship of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael. Their works will become a source of inspiration Mannerist – representatives of the cold and rational, coming entirely from the mind, the direction in art.
In our time, Florence has survived two terrible catastrophe – a Second World War and the disastrous floods in November 1966. But despite all the difficulties the city has recovered and continues to be considered one of the most beautiful cities of our planet.
Today, along with Rome and Venice, Florence is one of the most favorite and most visited cities by tourists from around the world.

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