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The genus of great apes native to Africa. It includes two types – common chimpanzee and bonobo chimpanzees. It is often referred to as the first view without the adjective, and the second is called pygmy chimpanzees or bonobos simply. The name of these monkeys is borrowed from the language of the tribe of bast and means “human-like”. Chimpanzees are made in relationship with other great apes – orangutans and gorillas.
Both of these monkeys are very similar to each other, in spite of its informal name pygmy chimpanzee, no less his kinsman, just looks more slender. When looking at the chimps noteworthy volume skull, accommodating the brain, which is only half human. Powerful jaws greatly protrude forward and are armed with sharp fangs. Nose Conversely, compared to human relatively small and flat. Also, these monkeys are well developed ears and eyebrows.
The forelimbs chimpanzees are almost equal in length rear. All legs thumb opposed to the others, indicating that the animal’s ability to manipulate small objects. On the palms and fingers of the forelimbs have a skin pattern, it is as individual and unique as the people, so chimpanzees can distinguish fingerprint. In general, these monkeys are very well developed muscles – they are superior to human strength, although lower than its growth. The body is covered with a thick, moderately long, straight hair, bare left hands and soles of the feet, ears and face. Sexual dimorphism is reduced to the difference in size. Males of these monkeys weigh 55-70 kg with an increase of up to 1.5 m, females weigh 33-50 kg with an increase of up to 1.3 m. In general, the genome of chimpanzees 98.7% coincides with a human. Physiologically (if not to take into account the difference in the appearance and behavior) these monkeys do not differ from us, for example, they have the same blood group as the people.
Common chimpanzees are found in West and Central Africa, where inhabit the rain forests and dry savanna. Bonobos inhabit Central Africa, and are found only in the rain forests, savannas and do not go. Both species live in groups of 15-30 individuals. In communities of chimpanzees reigns strict hierarchy. In common chimpanzees headed leader of the group, which is surrounded by a retinue of male lower rank. As a rule, the main male tries to maintain good relations with at least a few of them, giving favors to friends and sharing with them the prey. In the event of any conflict, it can be sure that they will perform at his side. The other male rivals threatening gestures, grin, keeping them in constant fear, and may start a fight if necessary. However, not always is the most powerful leader in the herd, it often took the most cunning, diplomatic and adapted animal. If the leader is old or ill to cope with their responsibilities, it may be replaced by a more worthy candidate. The females in the group are also divided into ranks, but their position does not depend on intelligence and strength, and the dose of attention that they have males. Leading female begging for males the most delicious part of the production, they are better developed, and during the breeding season attracted more suitors.
In groups of common chimps can observe a variety of behaviors. Males are usually aggressive, in extreme cases, defending their territory, they may even kill the animal from the next group, and the victim’s body with pleasure eaten by victors. The females while hunting is not so active, at least not as successful, so are the more likely to beg for food on the positions. At the same time, a female often show compassion: they can adopt a baby orphan, share food with the old member of the group, to sympathize with the wounded or the mother who has lost a baby. In general, common chimpanzees are considered rather aggressive animals. Suffice it to say that in nature there were cases when the monkeys trying to hunt people. In captivity for taming and experimental use only juveniles as adults become dangerous to humans. As for the bonobo chimpanzees, their structure is the same group as that of the common chimpanzee, with the only difference that the female head of the flock. Bonobos are not aggressive, as developed a special method of conflict resolution. The universal means of communication they have … sex acts. Pairing them regardless of age or breeding season.
The language of these monkeys includes a variety of poses, gestures and sounds. So, begging for food, chimps are suitable for someone with an outstretched arm; threatening its teeth; having fun and playing, smiling, laughing, including by tickling. In a state of anxiety they shout loudly, and with “conversation” quiet uhayuschie emit sounds (listen). All voice signals chimpanzees emit exhale that radically distinguishes them from man, whose vowels occur during inspiration. For this reason, the chimpanzee are not able to talk in a literal sense as human beings. However, the lack of words they make acumen. Under laboratory conditions, the young chimps learned the listening to 3000 words, numbers up to ten, mastered basic computer skills and were able to ask for the desired by pressing the button or selecting the image on the screen. These monkeys are easy to master the skills of treatment with everyday objects: can freely handle cutlery, wash, cook food on a fire. Unfortunately, there are cases where people were trained and their bad habits – drinking alcohol and smoking.
Chimpanzees at the primary level possess abstract concepts and their associated emotions. These animals are aware of the fact of death and truly grieves for fallen comrades. They can also study the subjects of the environment that are not of much use to them, for example, can be seen crawling python. Interestingly, in contrast to the people, useless (ie, non-hazardous and inedible) organisms, these monkeys will never destroy the contrary, there were cases when they were fed the turtles.
However, chimpanzee altruism towards others species should not be exaggerated. By the nature of the power these animals are omnivorous. Their diet contains green parts of plants, juicy fruits, grains, honey, bird eggs, insects and other monkeys …. Common chimpanzees regularly prey on small primates such as the red Colobus monkey and. His victims, they are surrounded on all sides, and then a few large males climb the tree and kill the monkey. Occasionally they may hunt other species: pigs catch wild pigs, fish, gather shellfish. Bonobos do not actively hunt, but sometimes catch monkeys and play with them.
Search production methods also varied. Typically, the monkey slowly bypass the territory, stepping on all four limbs. During their walk back legs rest on the ground sole and front – back of the hand. Such careful use of hands is explained most likely high sensitivity of the palms and the important role they play in the manipulation of objects. Hard-to-feed chimpanzee extracted with the help of available funds: a straw dipped in an anthill, and then pull out and lick ants sitting on it; picks open timber twig; pushes the object with a stick; break shell stone. The leaves are used as a ladle of water, an umbrella, a fan and … toilet paper. These monkeys are able to move on two legs, but in the nature of bipedalism is used rarely, mostly during the communication in the group. According to climb trees well, though inferior to the orangutans. Chimpanzees are able to swim, but do not like to get wet without much need. Rain monkeys suffer patiently, but on occasion, trying to cover his head leaves. They sleep for security only on the trees. Usually sleeping chimpanzees construct nests of a few hastily scribbled on each other’s sticks.
Pronounced breeding season in these primates do not. The ability of females to conceive offspring occurs cyclically at any time of the year, depending on age and physical condition of the individual. Pregnancy chimpanzee lasts 7.5-8 months, the baby is born is always the same. In the first days of life, it is covered with thin wool and hides on the breast of his mother, who will not part with it for a second. From young adult chimpanzees different body-pink color, with age, it darkens and becomes black. Childhood lasts up to 9 years, during this period the female gradually teaches the cubs the secrets of survival in nature. Many kids get useful skills, playing with each other and watching the other members of the group. Sexual maturity in chimpanzees in 13-14 years, and these monkeys live in the wild 40-45 years, in zoos up to 55-60 years. Just like people, the elderly chimp turns gray.
In nature, the main enemies of these monkeys are leopards. Predators stalk the chimpanzee from the ground, silently creeping in the bushes, and then rapidly climb a tree and kill prey. The only remedy for the care of chimpanzees remain. Seeing the enemy, monkeys are raising a terrible noise, making it clear the leopard, they see it – found the predator loses interest in the production and removed. Chimpanzee accelerate his departure throwing sticks potential abuser.
Both species of chimpanzees in the wild to be protected, especially bonobos to their limited habitat. In captivity, these monkeys are not a rarity. They breed well in zoos and are often contained in the biological stations and in research laboratories. Chimpanzees often used for psychological and behavioral research, as well as experiments that require a high level of intelligence (for example, spaceflight).